Open Access Open Badges Study protocol

Remote ischemic preconditioning to reduce contrast-induced nephropathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Thomas B Sterenborg1, Theo P Menting1, Yvonne de Waal2, Rogier Donders3, Kimberley E Wever1, M Susan Lemson5, Daan JA van der Vliet1, Jack F Wetzels2, Leo J SchultzeKool4 and Michiel C Warlé1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular- and Transplant Surgery, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein-Zuid 10, Nijmegen, GA 6525, the Netherlands

2 Department of Nephrology, Nijmegen, the Netherlands

3 Department of Epidemiology Biostatistics and HTA, Nijmegen, the Netherlands

4 Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands

5 Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, Slingeland Hospital, Doetinchem, the Netherlands

For all author emails, please log on.

Trials 2014, 15:119  doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-119

Published: 11 April 2014



Despite the increasing use of pre- and posthydration protocols and low-osmolar instead of high-osmolar iodine-containing contrast media, the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is still significant. There is evidence that contrast media cause ischemia-reperfusion injury of the medulla. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a non-invasive, safe, and low-cost method to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury.


The RIPCIN study is a multicenter, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial in which 76 patients at risk of CIN will receive standard hydration combined with RIPC or hydration with sham preconditioning. RIPC will be applied by four cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion of the forearm by inflating a blood pressure cuff at 50 mmHg above the actual systolic pressure. The primary outcome measure will be the change in serum creatinine from baseline to 48 to 72 h after contrast administration.


A recent pilot study reported that RIPC reduced the incidence of CIN after coronary angioplasty. The unusual high incidence of CIN in this study is of concern and limits its generalizability. Therefore, we propose a randomized controlled trial to study whether RIPC reduces contrast-induced kidney injury in patients at risk for CIN according to the Dutch guidelines.

Trial registration

Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76496973

Contrast-induced nephropathy; Remote ischemic preconditioning; Acute kidney injury; Pre- and posthydration; Randomized controlled trial